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818-552-5040
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Kent W. Small, MD

Board-Certified: American Board of Ophthalmology

Fellowship: Vitreoretinal Diseases and Surgery, Duke University Eye Center, Durham, NC; Molecular Genetics, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC

MD: Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA

Specialized care for retinal diseases:

  • Macular degeneration
  • Diabetic retinopathy
  • Retinal tears & detachments
  • Inherited retinal diseases
  • Retinal vascular disease
  • Macular holes
  • Macular puckers
  • Macular edema
  • Proliferative vitreoretinopathy/scar tissue

State-of-the-art diagnostic exams:

  • Fluorescein & indocyanine green (ICG) angiography
  • Fundus photography
  • Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO)
  • Ultrasound A & B scans
  • Visual field testing
  • Microperimetry
  • Optical coherence tomography (OCT)

Fluorescein Angiography

Fluorescein angiography, a clinical test to look at blood circulation inside the back of the eye, aids in the diagnosis of retinal conditions associated with diabetes, age-related macular degeneration, and other eye abnormalities. The test can also help follow the course of a disease and monitor its treatment. It may be repeated on multiple occasions with no harm to the eye or body.

Fluorescein is an orange-red dye that is injected into a vein in the arm. The dye travels through the body to the blood vessels in the retina, the light-sensitive nerve layer at the back of the eye. A special camera with a green filter flashes a blue light into the eye and takes multiple photographs of the retina. The technique uses regular photographic film, or, more commonly, is performed with digital equipment. No X-rays are involved.

If there are abnormal blood vessels, the dye leaks into the retina or stains the blood vessels. Damage to the lining of the retina or atypical new blood vessels may be revealed as well. These abnormalities are determined by a careful interpretation of the photographs by an ophthalmologist, Dr. Kent Small.

The dye can discolor skin and urine until it is removed from the body by the kidneys. There is little risk in having fluorescein angiography, though some people may have mild allergic reactions to the dye. Severe allergic reactions have been reported but only very rarely. Being allergic to X-ray dyes with iodine does not mean you will be allergic to fluorescein. Occasionally, some of the dye leaks out of the vein at the injection site, causing a slight burning sensation that usually goes away quickly.

Ophthalmic Electro-Diagnostic Test

Test Name

Area Tested

Time Taken

Dilating Drops

Flash ERG Global Retina(rods and cones) 60 minutes Yes
Pattern ERG Macular (central retinal) function 30 minutes No
EOG Retinal Pigment epithelium 30 minutes No
Cortical VEP Visual pathway (optic nerve to visual center in brain) 45 minutes No

Cedars-Sinai medical towers | 8635 West 3rd Street, Suite 395-W, Los Angeles, CA 90048 | Tel: (310) 659-2200 | Fax: (310) 659-2822 Glendale Office | 501 North Orange Street Suite 250, Glendale, CA 91203 | Tel: (818) 552-5040 | Fax: (818) 552-5044

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