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818-552-5040
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Kent W. Small, MD

Board-Certified: American Board of Ophthalmology

Fellowship: Vitreoretinal Diseases and Surgery, Duke University Eye Center, Durham, NC; Molecular Genetics, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC

MD: Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA

Specialized care for retinal diseases:

  • Macular degeneration
  • Diabetic retinopathy
  • Retinal tears & detachments
  • Inherited retinal diseases
  • Retinal vascular disease
  • Macular holes
  • Macular puckers
  • Macular edema
  • Proliferative vitreoretinopathy/scar tissue

State-of-the-art diagnostic exams:

  • Fluorescein & indocyanine green (ICG) angiography
  • Fundus photography
  • Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO)
  • Ultrasound A & B scans
  • Visual field testing
  • Microperimetry
  • Optical coherence tomography (OCT)

Electro-Oculogram (EOG)

Electrooculography (EOG) is a technique for measuring the corneo-retinal standing potential that exists between the front and the back of the human eye. Other areas of the visual pathway can be investigated by specific electrical tests. The electro-oculogram (EOG) investigates abnormalities of the outermost layer of the retina, the retinal pigment epithelium, allowing the early diagnosis of some inherited macular diseases such as Best disease.

The EOG is used to assess the function of the pigment epithelium. During dark adaptation, resting potential decreases slightly and reaches a minimum ("dark trough") after several minutes. When light is switched on, a substantial increase of the resting potential occurs ("light peak"), which drops off after a few minutes when the retina adapts to the light. The ratio of the voltages (i.e. light peak divided by dark trough) is known as the Arden ratio. In practice, the measurement is similar to eye movement recordings. The patient is asked to switch eye position repeatedly between two points (alternating looking from center to the left and from center to the right). Since these positions are constant, a change in the recorded potential originates from a change in the resting potential.

Ophthalmic Electro-Diagnostic Test

Test Name

Area Tested

Time Taken

Dilating Drops

Flash ERG Global Retina(rods and cones) 60 minutes Yes
Pattern ERG Macular (central retinal) function 30 minutes No
EOG Retinal Pigment epithelium 30 minutes No
Cortical VEP Visual pathway (optic nerve to visual center in brain 45 minutes No

Cedars-Sinai medical towers | 8635 West 3rd Street, Suite 395-W, Los Angeles, CA 90048 | Tel: (310) 659-2200 | Fax: (310) 659-2822 Glendale Office | 501 North Orange Street Suite 250, Glendale, CA 91203 | Tel: (818) 552-5040 | Fax: (818) 552-5044

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